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A scene from Back to 1942 Photo: CFP
A major winner at the Oscars, The Revenant, which is on a winning streak in China with more than 365 million yuan ($56.3 million) at the box office so far, was based on the novel The Revenant: A Novel of Revenge written by Michael Punke。 The Revenant does not stand alone in this regard。 Actually, more than half of the nominated films this year were adapted from serious fiction - works that delve into social commentary, political criticism or the exploration of the human condition。

China, by comparison, has seen only a few movies released this year that were based on works of serious fiction - the continuation of a trend that has only increased in recent years。

For instance, last year not a single domestic movie screen in China was adapted from serious fictions, while seven such films were screened over in the US。

This gap seems to reflect a significant difference between Chinese and US filmmakers。 Which begs the question: What is it about serious fiction works that cause filmmakers in China to steer clear of these types of film adaptations?

Money talks

The goal of adapting a literary work to film goes beyond just adapting words into visual images, adaptations, especially those of influential works, are expected to inherit and display the spirit of the original work。 However, it is this latter part that poses the greatest and most difficult challenge for directors and screenplay writers。

Chinese director Feng Xiaogang‘s Back to 1942 was one of the last major adaptations of a serious fiction work in China, yet it considerably under performed at the box office by earning only 369 million yuan。 In contrast, his commercial film Personal Tailor ranked at No.2 with 324 million yuan after its opening weekend, and in the end earned approximately 200 million more than 1942。

Feng has repeatedly said that Back to 1942, an adaptation of the book of the same name by Liu Zhenyun, was far more difficult to film than his films aimed at pure entertainment such as If You Are the One or Personal Tailor。

Another factor has been the rise of Super IPs - popular online literature that is seen as ripe for being turned into franchises that can encompass multiple mediums。 Since many of these Super IPs come with built-in fanbases, this popularity can help entice investors and facilitate marketing, as well as guarantee high box office returns。 As such when it comes to a choice between adapting a work of serious literature versus adapting popular lighter works, the more lucrative choice is naturally the latter。

In the past, Chinese directors, especially those among the fifth generation of directors, used to draw inspiration from serious literary works to produce their masterpieces。 For example, Red Sorghum, adapted from Nobel Prize winner Mo Yan‘s novel of the same name, can be considered a Zhang Yimou classic。

The 1980s were the “golden age” of serious fiction in China as numerous people sought to consume or produce such literature, which in turn increased the circulation of literary journals。 However, with the rise of the Internet things have changed。 Today, only a few long-lived literature journals still have circulation numbers around the tens of thousands, whereas most are lucky to reach into the several hundreds。

The loss of this massive readership has made it difficult for filmmakers to choose serious fiction for their adaptations。

European UBF and Intercontinental WBF boxing champion Edin Puhalo nike air presto blue uk , known as Edy, poses for photos in his private boxing gym in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina nike air presto purple uk , on Aug. 10, 2017. Puhalo is title holder of the UBF and WBF in cruiserweight division. He will fight for the WBA next October in Ljubljana, Slovenia. (XinhuaHaris Memija)

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